br obtained from hospital pathology archives in
obtained from hospital pathology archives in 50 countries worldwide. HPV DNA detection and typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with SPF10 broad spectrum primers followed by DNA detection using a DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) and HPV geno-typing using a reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA25) . More detailed descriptions can be found in previous reports [9–14]. Specifically for Korea, the project includes information from 742 cases of cervical cancer, 28 cases of female anal cancer, 16 cases of male anal cancer, 10 cases of vaginal cancer, 23 cases of vulvar cancer, 28 cases of penile cancer, 12 cases of female oropharynx cancer, 7 cases of male oropharynx cancer and 3 cases of male larynx cancer. However, due to the limited number of cases included for several locations, data were supplemented using information from several countries in Eastern Asia–including data from China, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. Prevalence was calculated as the proportion of women positive for a given type among all tested samples. The relative contribution (RC) of the types included in HPV vaccines was expressed as the pro-portion of cases positive for a given type among all HPV DNA positive samples. Type-specific information included information on multiple infections, which were added to single types in accordance with a proportional weighting attribution [16,17].
To complete the section of cervical cancer screening and HPV vac-cination programme in Korea, the Korean Centre of Disease Control (KCDC) and the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MSD Korea) were consulted, together with other relevant publications.
3. Burden of HPV infection and HPV-related disease in Korea
3.1. HPV infection in women with normal cytological findings
HPV infection is commonly found in the anogenital tract of women with and without clinical lesions. The most updated data estimating HPV infection among women with normal cervical Cycloheximide is based on systematic reviews and meta-analysis performed by the ICO/IARC Information Centre on HPV and Cancer. Crude and adjusted prevalence of HPV infection is estimated at 12.6% (12.3–12.9) and 10.7% (10.4–10.9) in Eastern Asia .
However, limited data regarding specific HPV prevalence among Korean women have been published. A meta-analysis conducted in 2008, reported crude and adjusted HPV prevalence of 20.4% and 23.9% in Korean women with normal cytological findings . Similar HPV prevalence (21.9%) was observed in a recent retrospective cross-sec-tional study among 18,815 women visited in 13 cities in Korea between January 2014 and October 2015 . However, substantial variations are observed among individual studies (Table 1) – the largest Korean study reported an overall HPV prevalence of 34.2% in women with normal cytological findings . These variations could be explained by differences in HPV detection methods but also because some of these studies have focused on women living in localized areas or on risk groups; hence, are unlikely to be representative of all Korean women. Globally, HPV prevalence in Korea peaks in women less than 25 year old (28.6%; 8.2–64.1), in which the majority of HPV infections (70–90%) are asymptomatic and transient, and then declines to 10.0–12.0% in other age groups . Individual studies agree with this decrease with age [20,23–25]. Regarding HPV type distribution in women with normal cytological findings, HPV16 is the dominant type in Korea, followed by HPVs 70/ 58/52/66/18/56/51/35/68 in specific rank order, although differences are observed from study to study  (Table 1). Particularly in Korea, the prevalence of HPV52 (2.3%) and HPV58 (0.9%) was higher than in other countries and regions .
3.2. HPV infection in women with cervical precancerous lesions
HPV DNA prevalence in Korea increases with lesion severity, in accordance with Eastern Asia data. In Korea, Bae et al.  meta-
HPV prevalence in women with normal cervical cytology in the Republic of Korea, by study.
Reference Study design HPV detection and targeted HPVs Age range N Prevalence "any 5 most frequent reported HPVs
Hwang T, J Korean Med Sci Cohort study among women attending the Department of
1999; 14: 593 Obstetrics and Gynecology, Inha University Hospital
Cross–sectional study among women attending routine
75 cervical cancer screening in healthcare centres in Seoul
Cohort study among women visited at the Department of
Gynecologic Oncology at Bundang CHA Hospital
Case control study among women visited at the
2003; 188: 56 outpatient clinic of the Yonsei University College of